Skin Concerns


Ethnic Cosmetics

FRAME® Ethnic Cosmetics

 

In a global context, those who work in the Cosmetics industry must know the specific cultural, social, and biological particularities of every population. If every geographic area has its own specific characteristics, the same is true for populations and for products linked to personal care and wellness.

It is important to reflect on the fact that the cosmetics and health supplements used by those who live in a temperate climate cannot be the same as those used by people in Africa, in Northern Europe or in tropical islands, because every population has its own physiological particularities, pathogens and beauty concerns.

In order to be truly effective, cosmetics must be able to respect and address these particularities. For this reason, today we speak about “ethnic cosmetics,” a term that we intend to denote particular emphasis on ethnicity within the development of specific products for Asian, African, or Caucasian skin types.

So-called ethnic treatments are targeted to two types of the population: those that can be classified as phototype V and VI (which denote those of mixed race and color) and those that can be classified as phototype III and IV (Asians tend to fall in this category).

Other than pigmentation, there are also structural differences among these two types of skin. Asian skin tends not to differ greatly from Caucasian skin: no difference is visible in the stratum corneum, while some differences are evident in the epidermis and dermis.

Asian skin is much lighter; it tends to suffer hyperpigmentation marks during adolescence and melasma during pregnancy. The secretion of the sebaceous glands is more abundant in some Asian populations, especially in that of the Chinese, whereas it is less so in Caucasian populations. Japanese, on the other hand, tend to have low sebaceous secretion.

The fibroblast tends to be more hyperactive and the activity of the collagenase enzyme is reduced within the dermis, which explains the increase in the formation of scar tissue and keloids, and the delayed appearance of wrinkles and other notable signs of aging, which are typical Asian traits.

Asians tend to have thicker skin than Caucasians. Less at risk for developing skin cancer from UV rays, Asian skin possesses the ability to repair the DNA of skin cells after sun exposure.

The skin barrier of Asians is, however, weaker. The hydration level of the skin tends to be inferior, since the stratum corneum contains a lower quantity of NMF (Natural Moisturizing Factors). Acne tends to be common and can leave scars or other marks. Signs of aging appear, on average, ten years later than in other ethnicities. Wrinkles tend to be found mainly around the eye area, the forehead, and around the mouth. They are not very pronounced until about 40 years of age, but after that the process often accelerates in an inconsistent way.

The thickness of the epidermis decreases especially around areas exposed to the sun, where cellular renewal is less effective. The loss of elasticity is also a factor. With age, wrinkles increase in size and depth, but over 60 years of age, the number and size of wrinkles tend to no longer vary.

For Asians, the aging of the face shows itself first of all with the appearance of pigmentation marks. The first signs of irregularity can be seen around 30 years of age on the cheeks and forehead, areas that tend to be exposed the most to the sun, and the marks that appear represent accumulations of melanin. This hyperpigmentation accentuates around 50 years of age.

Additionally, Asian skin tends to take on a yellowish tint with age, and the sun is not the only factor responsible. Hormones also have a significant influence on pigmentation, altering the melanogenesis (the process of the formation of melanin), as do genetic predispositions. Asian women often tend to have very sensitive or intolerant skin, especially with regards to environmental pollutants. Their skin tends to easily redden or become inflamed. With that being said, there are, of course, many variations depending on specific Asian regions and their differing climates, eating habits, and lifestyles.

This is precisely why our Research Department has developed specific combinations of active ingredients and formulas that are calibrated to hinder the development of pathologies linked to certain types of epidermis. These are formulas that have been designed to address the particular exigencies of various ethnic groups and populations, and have been specially adapted, in this case, to the unique needs of the Asian populations.

CHOOSING COSMETICS:

Always read the label before buying or using a new product: it is a source of fundamental information. On the label there are, in fact, references to the manufacturer, the country of origin, the purpose of the product, tips about preservation, the expiration date and indications of the manner, precautions and limitations of use. On the list of ingredients -which is mandatory for many countries – you can search for the substances to which you are allergic, intolerant or which you have decided not to use.

Even if lower-cost products should not be demonized, when buying cosmetic products, be extra careful if purchasing on stalls and on the Internet. Remember that counterfeit cosmetics can be cheaper than the original ones, but do not offer guarantees of quality, efficiency and safety. Price depends in fact on composition and good manufacturing practices, as well as packaging and advertising costs.

If you have a naturally dark skin you should know that skin whiteners are potentially dangerous products because they may contain toxic substances. The most hazardous substances used in whiteners/bleachers are mercury or other substances such as Cortisone that are authorized as medicines but not as cosmetics; as for cosmetics legally marketed the problem does not arise.

 

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN SKIN:

Men’s skin is about 25% thicker than women’s, with more collagen, more and larger hair follicles and more sebum production, all of which is mostly due to increased testosterone production. These structural differences make men’s skin less sensitive and able to handle stronger ingredients. However, it also makes them a bit more acne-prone, so they don’t need as heavy cream-based products.

Other factors, like daily shaving, spending more time outdoors on average and being at a higher risk for skin cancer, make skin-repairing ingredients and SPF even more essential for men. Men generally prefer fragrance-free and all-in-one products that are easy to use, whereas women tend to prefer pretty scents and longer, luxurious routines.

Women’s products should have ingredients that will to cater to the fact that they have thinner skin and tend to lose moisture to a greater degree and get photodamage at an earlier age in general. Men can exfoliate more often than women. With thicker skin, a man can use a gentle scrub pretty much every day. Men often have larger pores and produce more oil. On the upside, this means that their skin is usually less dry and will age well. The down side? More blackheads and longer-lasting acne.

Hyperpigmentation (discoloration of the skin) is less of an issue for men since they do not experience the type of hormonal activity that contributes to changes in skin color. Men’s skin has a higher density of collagen than women’s, meaning that many men could theoretically age much slower than women with proper skin care and regular sun protection.

 

TRANSGENDER & SKINCARE:

For the transgender individual whose misrepresentative outer appearance is at the root of their personal conflict, it may be clear how the skin is a critical component of establishing self-harmony. Physical transformation often begins with hormonal intervention, which, if done early enough, can interfere with puberty and help guide natural contouring into the desired gender.

Studies of hormone use in transgender individuals show potential skin-related side effects, with testosterone creating an oilier canvas, and oestrogens leading to dryness and body hair loss. For example, a transgender man may in turn experience worsened acne, while, conversely, a transgender woman may develop eczema and itchiness.

As for the face, invasive surgery is the most widely used technique to reshape one’s facial structure into its proper gender. Unfortunately, many individuals rely on non-professionals for their procedures, incurring devastating consequences ranging from nodules and swelling to infections.

Exogenous hormones affect hair and sebum production, gender-confirming surgeries often require dermatologic pre and postoperative interventions, and postoperative anatomy may show unique presentations of routine skin conditions. Given the complexities of the transitioning process, transgender individuals may face unique dermatologic needs in addition to routine care. Transgender individuals have to consider that their skin characteristics are definitely different from typical men’s and women’s. FRAME® hopes to bring dermatology to the forefront of transgender care, making our resources known to the community by providing an effective and safe option for realising one’s self-image and caring for it thereafter.

So we highly recommend transgender customers use the FRAME® “Made-To-Measure” skincare kit. In your case, in addition to replying to our on-line questionnaire, a member of our scientific advisory board will get in touch with you by e-mail and will ask you some more details before proceeding with the creation of your tailor-made skincare programme.

WHAT CAUSES OUR SKIN AND BODY TO AGE:

Many things! Some things we cannot do anything about; others we can influence. One thing that we cannot change is the natural aging process. It plays a key role. With time, we all get visible lines on our face and body. It is natural for our face to lose some of its youthful fullness. We notice our skin becoming thinner and drier. Our genes largely control when these changes occur. The medical term for this type of aging is “intrinsic aging.” We can influence another type of aging that affects our skin, thought. Our environment and lifestyle choices can cause our skin to age prematurely. The medical term for this type of aging is “extrinsic aging.” By taking some preventive actions, we can slow the effects that this type of aging has on our skin. Frame® Cosmetics is meant to help you on this prevention and cure process.

SKIN TYPES & PROPERTIES:

Knowledge about individual skin properties is helpful for choosing adequate skin care products and treatment regimens. Individual skin type may change due to external (e.g. climate, skin care) and internal (e.g. medications, hormonal changes) factors over time – it is not static. Several skin types and properties may be present simultaneously in an individual in different localisations (e.g. oily skin with irritated skin patches).

NORMAL SKIN: Displays a smooth texture and a rosy, clear surface, with fine pores. There are no visible blemishes, greasy patches or flaky areas. Sebum production, moisture content, keratinisation and desquamation are well-balanced. Normal skin is often found in young persons.

DRY SKIN: Is characterised by a lack of moisture in its corneous layer, resulting in tightness and even flaking. The skin appears dull, especially on the cheeks and around the eyes. It may lack elasticity, with accentuated fine lines and wrinkles. In more severe cases, itching and burning may occur. Extremely dry skin shows signs of cracking and fissuring. Dry skin can be genetically determined or triggered by factors such as climate, cosmetics and medications. It can be a natural consequence of the ageing process, as sebum production slows down.

OILY SKIN: Is characterised by an increased amount of lipids on the skin surface due to overactive sebaceous glands. It is shiny and thick, often with enlarged pores. Oily skin is prone to blackheads and other blemishes. It occurs more often in men than in women, and it predominantly affects adolescents and younger persons.

COMBINATION SKIN: Is rather dry in some parts of the body and oily in other localisations. Mixed facial skin tends toward dryness on the cheeks and around the eyes while being oily in the t-zone (nose, forehead, chin). The dry parts and the oily parts require different skin care regimens. This skin type is very common.

SENSITIVE SKIN: Is not a skin type, but rather a symptom caused by various factors. Patients tend to describe their skin as “sensitive” if it frequently reacts with redness, itching, burning or dryness to the topical application of skin care products. Causes for this condition may be an underlying skin disorder, allergies, contact to irritants in certain products, or the use of inadequate, not skin type-adjusted products. Most commonly, the facial skin is involved.

MATURE SKIN: With age, the skin’s sebum production slows down, often leading to increased dryness, an accentuation of fine lines and wrinkles, and flakiness. The skin may appear dull, and finally start to itch and burn. In women, the shifting balance of hormones with menopause causes various changes. As their skin thins considerably after the menopause, women’s skin may become more sensitive to sun damage and weather extremes. Another problem is hyperpigmentation, especially in persons with a long history of sun exposure. While it is important to meet the needs of mature skin, it is necessary to keep in mind that not all persons over 40 experience the above-mentioned problems. Therefore different skin care regimens may be necessary in persons of the same age according to their skin type.

SUGGESTIONS TO REDUCE PREMATURE SKIN AGEING:

  • Protect your skin from the sun every day. Whether spending a day at the beach or running errands, sun protection is essential. You can protect your skin by seeking shade, covering up with clothing, and using sunscreen that is broad-spectrum, SPF 30 (or higher), and water-resistant. You should apply sunscreen every day to all skin that is not covered by clothing. Frame’s daily cream contain already the right SPF protection.
  • Apply self-tanner rather than get a tan. Every time you get a tan, you prematurely age your skin. This holds true if you get a tan from the sun, a tanning bed, or other indoor tanning equipment. All emit harmful UV rays that accelerate how quickly your skin ages.
  • If you smoke, stop or smoke less. Smoking greatly speeds up how quickly skin ages. It causes wrinkles and a dull, sallow complexion.
  • Avoid repetitive facial expressions. When you make a facial expression, you contract the underlying muscles. If you repeatedly contract the same muscles for many years, these lines become permanent. Wearing sunglasses can help reduce lines caused by squinting.
  • Eat a healthy, well-balanced diet and get right supplements.
  • Drink less alcohol. Alcohol is rough on the skin. It dehydrates the skin, and in time, damages the skin. This can make us look older.
  • Exercise most days of the week. Findings from a few studies suggest that moderate exercise can improve circulation and boost the immune system. This, in turn, may give the skin a more-youthful appearance.
  • Cleanse your skin gently. Scrubbing your skin clean can irritate your skin. Irritating your skin accelerates skin aging. Gentle washing helps to remove pollution, makeup, and other substances without irritating your skin.
  • Wash your face twice a day and after sweating heavily. Perspiration, especially when wearing a hat or helmet, irritates the skin, so you want to wash your skin as soon as possible after sweating.
  • Apply a facial moisturizer every day. Moisturizer traps water in our skin, giving it a more youthful appearance.
  • Stop using skin care products that sting or burn. When your skin burns or stings, it means your skin is irritated. Irritating your skin can make it look older. Some anti-aging products prescribed by a dermatologist may burn or sting. Just be sure to let your dermatologist know.

ANTI-AGEING ANTIOXIDANTS:

When it comes to anti-aging ingredients, the research is clear: Antioxidants are essential and the more you apply to skin, the better! Just like your diet needs a mix of healthy beneficial nutrients, so does your skin. But what are they? What do antioxidants do? Does it matter which one you choose? We’re answering these questions and more, because adding an antioxidant to your skin care regimen might just be the most important thing you do to fight aging. Skin is the largest organ of your body and so nourishing its surface with ingredients like antioxidants is important. Not only do antioxidants help combat the elements responsible for the visible signs of aging, they can also calm skin, help to restore a more youthful appearance, and revitalize dull-looking skin. When it comes to your skin and antioxidants, remember the old adage: “There’s strength in numbers.” When the top-notch antioxidants detailed below are combined and working together, and reinforced with daily use of sunscreen and other potent antioxidants and skin-beneficial ingredients, the visible results can be remarkable! And antioxidants perform better when they are packaged in airtight or air-restricting containers. All antioxidants breakdown in the presence of air, so jar packaging won’t keep these vital ingredients stable once you open the container. We are often asked what the best antioxidants are for skin. Despite the seemingly endless array of good antioxidants, there are a few standouts we want you to know about. Each has an outstanding performance record when it comes to taking the best care of your skin.

Vitamin E: Is one of the most well-known antioxidants. It is a fat-soluble vitamin available in both natural and synthetic forms. Research shows that both forms provide significant antioxidant benefits to skin, but that the natural forms are more potent and last longer in skin than their synthetic counterparts. Vitamin E works in several different ways to protect defend skin from outside elements that have a profound negative impact on skin. It’s often found in sunscreens because of its supporting role in helping defend skin from the stress UV light exposure can cause. Vitamin E also works in powerful synergy with vitamin C.

Vitamin C: Listed as ascorbic acid, tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate, among others, is a potent antioxidant that works particularly well for diminishing the look of fine lines, wrinkles, dullness, and uneven skin tone. This well-researched water-soluble vitamin is considered an anti-aging superstar for all skin types. When applied topically, vitamin C has been proven to preserve skin’s resiliency so it takes on a firmer feeling and smoother appearance. Research has also shown that vitamin C helps improve uneven skin tone and brighten dull skin so it’s visibly more radiant, just like younger skin. Like most antioxidants, vitamin C can also calm and help hydrate skin so its better able to withstand the rigors of daily life and the impact it can have on how skin looks and feels. Amounts of vitamin C from 0.5% to 20% have shown impressive efficacy.

Resveratrol: Is a potent polyphenolic antioxidant that’s found in red grapes, red wine, nuts, and fruits such as blueberries and cranberries. It’s a relatively new antioxidant, but emerging research is showing it to be an antioxidant superhero for your skin. Applied topically, resveratrol helps protect skin’s surface, interrupts helps rebuff negative environmental influences, and brightens a tired-looking complexion. Resveratrol also has significant calming properties that may help temper redness. Look for resveratrol in moisturizers and anti-aging makeup.

Retinol,: It is the technical term for vitamin A. It has a long-established reputation as one of the most extraordinary ingredients for skin. It’s a skin-restoring ingredient and an antioxidant, and provides multiple benefits for almost every skin care concern imaginable from uneven skin tone, bumps, enlarged pores, rough surface texture, fine lines and wrinkles, and improved skin luminosity. An added benefit is that retinol also has been shown to unclog congested pores and soften the appearance of red areas many people perceive as surface imperfections. Retinol has been shown to improve skin’s resilience which contributes to its overall feeling of firmness and more youthful, healthy appearance. Due to its anti-aging ability, retinol is a key ingredient to improve the look of fine lines, wrinkles, dullness, and uneven skin tone.

Sunscreens: You wear sunscreen every day ? That’s OK. After all, up to 90% of preventable aging is caused by UV exposure and that means smoking, diet, and sleep barely matter by comparison. For the last few decades, everyone from dermatologists to beauty editors has been stressing the importance of SPF. “Wear sunscreen and you’ll look younger” has been our motto. But here’s the thing: We were wrong. SPF is not enough to protect you from sun damage. Sunscreens block UVA and UVB rays, but those rays only account for 7% of solar energy. New research finds that infrared radiation, which makes up 54% of solar energy, also causes aging and it might even be worse than UV rays. While there is no product that can totally guard you from infrared radiation, studies show that antioxidants in skin care may help. More and more dermatologists and skin care experts now recommend wearing an antioxidant serum and a sunscreen and many of them believe the antioxidant is the more important half of the duo. The problem, however, is that most patients skip that antioxidant step because there’s so much confusion about antioxidants:

ABOUT ANTIOXIDANTS:

Both edible and topical in their form, antioxidant beauty solutions offer a natural way to combat everything from environmental damage to lack of sleep. These products not only align with the larger health movement; they also signify a shift towards beauty solutions that are more natural in their approach.But are antioxidant-rich skincare products as effective as they say they are? Rusting iron and the browning flesh of an avocado both have something in common with the discoloration, wrinkles and fine lines of our aging skin: oxidation. Antioxidants counter this natural aging process, and that’s why they have been taking top billing in skin care.

How antioxidants work: Oxidation occurs throughout nature. In the case of our skin, it is largely caused by the creation of free radicals at the cellular level when skin is exposed to ultraviolet light. Antioxidants are touted to reduce oxidative stress by neutralizing free radicals‘unstable atoms that have an unpaired electron in their outermost shell, almost like a knife without a sheath. The antioxidants act to sheathe the knife, binding with the unstable electron and stopping it from attacking collagen strands and other cells of the skin’s architecture.

Antioxidants in beauty products: Antioxidants are compounds such as vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, zinc, copper and beta carotene. Beauty companies are harnessing these, as well as the antioxidants from an increasing range of botanicals such as green tea, pomegranates, coffee berries, grape seeds, olives, mushrooms and more. ‘The use of topical antioxidants is gaining favour,’ says Dr. Patricia Farris, a leading dermatologist based in Louisiana who lectures widely on antioxidants and also consults with the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries on their use. ‘More and more scientific studies are proving their effectiveness, not only in helping to reduce wrinkles and aging but also reducing inflammation, such as in rosacea, or even helping prevent skin cancer.’ But other dermatologists, such as Dr. Richard Thomas, a clinical assistant professor in the department of dermatology and skin science at the University of British Columbia, and Dr. Cheryl Rosen, clinical division head of dermatology at the University Health Network in Toronto, sound a note of caution. ‘Theoretically, the idea behind them is wonderful,’ says Thomas, who notes that while the juice of a lemon works to stop an avocado or apple from turning brown (thanks to vitamin C), that is a very different biological process than occurs when skin is exposed to sun. ‘There is still a great deal of hype for their use for skin,’ says Thomas. ‘They are not a magic bullet yet.’ Rosen agrees.

Three questions about antioxidants and skin care: At issue are three different criteria: how to keep antioxidants stable in product formulas; how well antioxidants are actually absorbed into the skin; and what concentrations are necessary to make them effective while still being non-irritating. Here’s the latest on those issues:

Stability: Some skincare companies are solving the problem of rapid antioxidant breakdown, especially upon exposure to light, by packaging lotions, creams and serums in dark brown, blue or opaque bottles and in metal tubes. Other companies are including powdered vitamin C in a separate package; you mix it into the moisturizer at the time of use. A common plant compound called ferulic acid is also emerging as an effective stabilizer, based on new scientific research.

Absorption: Antioxidants that are taken by mouth either in food or supplements are circulated through the body and absorbed into cells. But when it comes to applying them to the skin, the concern has been that they would just sit on top of it, where they would soon be washed or rubbed off instead of being absorbed into the skin cells where their protective action could be most effective. Good news, according to Farris: Many studies and reviews have appeared in medical journals confirming the ability of antioxidants to be absorbed into skin cells. ‘Now we know they can be absorbed into the cells of the stratum corneum [the topmost layer of skin] and that is where they neutralize free radicals,’ Farris says.

Concentration: How much is enough to be effective? Some products just have a sprinkle levels unlikely to be effective’yet concentrations that are too high run the risk of provoking skin irritation. There is an optimal concentration level for each antioxidant.

THE SCIENCE BEHIND FRAME® FORMULAS:

We’re trying to do something totally new in this field. Frame is not just “another” cosmetics and healthcare company. What we’re doing has the potential to have a major impact on human’s skin ageing and health. There aren’t many opportunities where you can make that statement, but it’s crucial that you do it right, because if you  do there will be a whole new venue for improving skin and body health that wasn’t there before. We carefully identify the most promising natural compounds to develop based on preclinical studies in the scientific literature and make them available to improve skin health in a way that is both rigorous and rapid. Here below you can read about few of the most important ingredients that our labs are seriously taking in consideration:

Hyaluronic Acid – Don’t let the name fool you. Hyaluronic acid isn’t an acid in the way you may think. Unlike salicylic, glycolic, and lactic acids, hyaluronic acid doesn’t remove dead cells from your skin. On the contrary, it actually adds something absolutely vital to optimal skin health: water. Nature’s most powerful water magnet. This ingredient’s super power? It can hold 1,000 times its own weight in water. (That’s sort of like you holding up a whale. Crazy, right?).  Hyaluronic acid is naturally present within your entire body and has the consistency of a viscous gel. It acts as a lubricant to help your joints, muscles, and nerves function smoothly. Think of it like the oil in a car engine. So what specifically does it do for your skin? It is the supreme humectant, not only drawing vital water in to your skin, but also holding on to it and preventing moisture loss. This provides both immediate and long-term hydration benefits, so your skin can maintain a plump, hydrated, radiant, and smooth appearance. Hyaluronic acid also serves another key function in optimal skin health. It strengthens your moisture barrier, which is the outermost layer of your skin and your first line of defense against environmental aggressors. Think of your moisture barrier as the roof of a house. When it’s intact, it protects everything inside, but when it’s leaky, damage occurs. When your moisture barrier is intact, your skin appears and feels smooth, soft, and plump. If your moisture barrier is damaged, your skin looks dry and rough. (Think of dry skin cells flaking off your skin as a tile slipping off the roof of the house.) The more damaged your moisture barrier, the harder it is to reverse issues like dehydration, wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, and breakouts. Hyaluronic acid fills in the spaces between skin’s essential support structures, keeping your moisture barrier strong and cushioned. Who needs hyaluronic acid? Everyone! Your moisture barrier can be compromised daily by environmental factors like indoor heating, sun exposure, dehydration, pollution, and dirt. Additionally, your body naturally loses about one pint of water a day, which can affect your skin’s level of hydration, especially if you fall into the 75% of Americans who are chronically dehydrated. But hyaluronic acid isn’t just for dry skin, and it isn’t just for winter either. Every skin type would look its most youthful, plump, and radiant with an optimized moisture barrier. Also keep in mind that your ability to retain water and naturally produce hyaluronic acid declines as you age, which can exacerbate increased dryness, fine lines, wrinkles, and sagging. (Babies have such soft, plump skin because they have a ton of hyaluronic acid in their cute, pinchable bodies.) Make sure hyaluronic acid is part of your skin care regimen. Hyaluronic acid is a key ingredient in many moisturizers and serums and should be used day and night.  But don’t be scared that this type of intense hydration has to come in a thick cream. Case in point: Clinique Moisture Surge Extended Thirst Relief, which has a lightweight gel texture. This serum-in-a-jar actually has two types of hyaluronic acid—one that works immediately on the uppermost layers of your skin, and another variant that penetrates deeper. Use it daily for immediate and long-lasting hydration, or tap it over makeup for a midday shot of extra moisture. Another hyaluronic acid superstar: Clinique Smart Broad Spectrum SPF 15 Custom-Repair Moisturizer, which is not only loaded with it, but it also helps reduce the 4 major signs of aging with its powerful blend of peptides, proteins, and antioxidants.

Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging (MFRTA) – Free radical damage was one of the  first processes associated with aging, going back to the 1950s when Dr. Denham Harman  first proposed oxidation as a mechanism for tissue destruction. Free radicals are the predominant intracellular pollutant and mitochondria are responsible for approximately 80% of intracellular free radicals. Mitochondria play crucial roles in several age-related diseases, and in the physiology of normal skin aging. The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging states that the accumulation of oxidative damage in the mitochondria, produced as a byproduct of normal cellular respiration, is the main driving force in the aging process. The modern version of the MFRTA proposes that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide anion, originating from several mitochondrial enzymes, enters into a number of secondary reactions leading to other ROS that ultimately react with and extensively damage cellular macromolecular structures. The afected cells accumulate such damage over time and will eventually cease to function normally, contributing to reduced physiological function. Dysfunctional mitochondria send incorrect messages, decrease ATP production, and produce more free radicals. Defective mitochondria replicate their own damaged DNA into new mitochondria, eventually displacing all well-performing mitochondria. Dysfunctional mitochondria are associated with many degenerative diseases. Out of control free radicals cause widespread tissue damage and put our body in a state of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress afects our skin, causing premature signs of aging and disturbing wound healing. Oxidative phosphorylation is the metabolic process that fuels the production of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), the major source of energy for our cells. This pathway, also referred to as the electron transport system, transfers electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors. These redox reactions are carried out by a series of mitochondrial protein complexes collectively referred to as the electron transport chain. As the electrons pass through the chain, energy is generated that is used to make ATP. However, leakages occur in the system that generates the formation of damaging hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. Given the intricate structure of mitochondria and their proximity to the toxins that are produced, mitochondria along with mitochondrial DNA are the most vulnerable and susceptible to damage. The MFRTA explains that mitochondrial damage increases with age, and is responsible for the physical changes that occur with age. The MFRTA opens the door for the skincare industry to investigate the best ways to harness mitochondrial functions for use in the  fight against premature skin aging and promote healthy, youthful skin. Current eforts in the industry focus on the development of active ingredients that will protect the mitochondria and boost their function, with the idea that these ingredients will contribute to increased cell protection, cellular longevity, improved barrier function, and a better functioning extracellular matrix.

Pollution – Is defined as the introduction of contaminants into an otherwise natural environment. Ironically, as industrialization has improved quality of life around the globe tremendously, it has simultaneously increased the pollutants we live with on a daily basis. Air pollution has a direct impact on health and wellness. As your  first line of defense, the skin is consistently exposed to environmental stressors. The latest standard of pollution, the EPA’s PM 2.5 (Particulate Matter 2.5, air pollutants with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less) are tiny particles in the air that reduce visibility, and have implications in overall air quality. Capable of penetrating deeper layers of the epidermis causing infiammation, dehydration, and a cellular reaction that can lead to the loss of elasticity and  firmness. Although even simple surface interactions can drastically alter the composition of the skin, influencing surface barrier function, or causing dryness and acne. Regardless of where you live, you might be surprised to hear that pollution has found its way into your life. As the number of consumers living urban lifestyles continues to grow around the globe, it seems that many are turning toward beauty products to protect themselves from the impact of pollution. Emannuelle Moeglin, a global cosmetics analyst at Mintel says “To  fight pollution we need to put up our own skin barriers!” Eliminating the need for repair measures by dealing with the problem in real time. Recent research focused on sulfur dioxide has led to an innovative approach on anti-aging. Sulfur dioxide was previously regarded as a toxic gas in atmospheric pollutants, but it has been found to be endogenously generated from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in mammals. Pathophysiological effects of sulfur dioxide were also determined. For example, sulfur dioxide improved systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension, prevented the development of atherosclerosis, and protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. Inflammation has been linked to various diseases, including wrinkling of the skin and the aging process. Exposure to insult from environmental stress, or irritants can disrupt the skin barrier and consequently activate the release of proinfiammatory cytokines in the skin. These cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), induce protective acute inflammation to trigger the repair of the disrupted skin barrier. The process of aging results in an increase of in ammatory cytokines, which are responsible for many of the degenerative diseases that are associated with aging.

The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-  Signaling pathway has been proposed to be one of the key mediators of aging. It is activated by genotoxic, oxidative, and in ammatory stresses and regulates expression of cytokines, growth factors, and genes that regulate apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell senescence, and infiammation. Transcriptional activity of NF-κB is increased in a variety of tissues with aging and is associated with several age related degenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s, diabetes and osteoporosis. Therefore, NF-κB represents a possible therapeutic target for delaying signs and symptoms of aging.

IL-6 – Is known to play an active role in in ammation, immunology, bone metabolism, reproduction, arthritis, neoplasia, and aging. IL-6 signals through the NF-κB pathway that results in the transcription of in ammatory mediators, including matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). MMPs, including collagenase, elastase, and hyalurodinase, are responsible for breaking down the extracellular matrix and collagen in the skin leading to wrinkles,  fine lines, and loss of skin elasticity. Reducing the level of IL-6 and other infiammatory mediators indicates a reduced in ammatory environment which could decrease the signs of aging and reduce the formation of  ne lines and wrinkles.

The Skin Stem Cells – The skin constantly renews itself, however these long-term self-renewing skin stem cells begin to regenerate more slowly as part of the aging process. It is proposed that the impaired wound healing rate in aging skin may be due either to impaired stem cell mobilization or a reduced number of stem cells able to respond to proliferative signals. Lost or dying cells begin to outnumber their regenerated counterparts, which likely leads to common signs of aging, such as wrinkles and a decrease in elasticity. It is for this reason that stem cells make intriguing additions to anti-aging products. Skin stem cells reside in the basal layer of the epidermis and their primary function is to replenish the skin as it undergoes normal homeostasis and wound repair. Like all stem cells, those in the epidermis are identical and capable of dividing themselves for extended periods of time. When a stem cell divides, the daughter cells have the potential to either remain a stem cell, like the parent cell, or they can differentiate into cells with a more specialized function known as “progenitor cells”. After these progeny experience several rapid divisions in the basal layer, they stop dividing and travel through the suprabasal layers to the tissue surface. Once there, they progressively di erentiate, switching from expression of one set of keratins to another. Eventually their nuclei degenerate, producing an outer layer of dead keratinized cells that are shed. Stem cells continuously renew the epidermis, with a turnover time of approximately one month. Epidermal stem cells also are stored in a microenvironment called the bulge, which is located at the base of the hair follicle. They remain dormant there until recruited by neighboring cells to help repair the skin.

Plant Delivered Stem Cell Technology – In recent years, researchers have identifed naturally occurring botanicals with substantial antioxidant activity proven to protect skin from UV-induced oxidative stress, inhibit in ammation, neutralize free radicals and reverse the effects of photoaging. In contrast to epidermal stem cells, plant stem cells are “totipotent”, meaning they are capable of regenerating an entirely new, whole plant. Through innovative plant stem cell technology, scientists are able to extract tissue from botanicals and use them for novel cosmetic applications. Meristematic plant stem cells begin with no specific activity, but the induction of biotic stress triggers these stem cells to start producing secondary metabolites.

Probiotics & Bacteria – The discovery of the skin microbiome is a revolutionary scientifc breakthrough as it presents an opportunity for the development of smarter cosmetics. In and on our bodies, microbial cells outnumber human cells by a factor of 10. It is increasingly apparent that this collective set of micro-organisms contributes genetic diversity, modulates disease, influences metabolic processes, and is essential for immunity. The human microbiome is also dynamic, and changes associated with health and disease have been described and mechanistically investigated. The microbiome is also a prime target for manipulation to influence health and disease processes, including skin aging. The concept of probiotic bacteria in cosmetics is considerably evolving. Clinical and experimental studies extensively document that probiotic bacteria can benefit the skin when applied topically, just as their oral consumption is associated with intestinal benefits. Scientific and evidence-based reports strengthen the assumption that certain probiotics can contribute to modulate cutaneous microflora, lipid barrier, and skin immune system, leading to the preservation of the skin homeostasis and promoting healthy skin. Topical applications of probiotics targeting the skin microbiota may offer promise in the realm of anti-aging. For example, certain metabolites produced by skin microbiota may offer beneft by modulating cutaneous pro-and anti- infiammatory responses, similar to what has been shown in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics are de ned by The World Health Organization as a live microbial culture product which beneficially influences the health and nutrition of the host. In their truest sense, probiotics are bacteria. Given that live bacteria cannot be incorporated into cosmetics, beauty manufacturers looking to capitalize on the benefits associated with probiotics have investigated the option of incorporating bacterial lysates into their formulations. The understanding being that these deliver similar probiotic benefits.

Photoageing – A variety of environmental stresses, particularly ultraviolet light, can damage sun-exposed areas of the skin, such as the face and neck, and accelerate premature aging. Skin aging that is associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure is referred to as photoaging. Exposure to ultraviolet light initiates and activates a complex cascade of biochemical reactions in human skin, including the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species that stimulate in ammatory processes. Ultraviolet radiation causes depletion of cellular antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, initiates DNA damage, activates the neuroendocrine system leading to immunosuppression and release of neuroendocrine mediators, and causes increased synthesis and release of pro-infiammatory mediators from a variety of skin cells. The result of all these effects is infiammation, free radical generation, and the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs break down the extracellular matrix and collagen in the skin leading to wrinkles,  fine lines, and loss of skin elasticity. Ultraviolet radiation may account for up to 80% of visible signs of aging in the skin, including dry appearance, scalping, wrinkling and impaired pigmentation, and photoaging correlates with cancer risk.

Neurocosmetic Actives – The cutaneous nervous system is a newer aspect of the skin cosmetic formulators are addressing to promote a healthy, youthful appearance. The use of neurocosmetics in formulations can have an effect on how the brain responds to topical treatment. Neurocosmetics targets nerve clusters sensitive to heat, cold, pain, itch and pressure to physiologically act on the mind via the skin. These receptors send signals through the skin to the spinal cord, which are then transmitted up to the cerebral cortex of the brain. The concept is based on the science of neurotransmitters, or chemical vectors of nerve information. These mediators are synthesized by every skin cell and interact between the nerve system and the skin. For that reason, neurocosmetics actives play a significant role in skin balance by acting on these messengers. Neurotransmitters are chemical messages which are known to be released by skin nerve  bers. Skin cells such as keratinocytes, melanocytes, and  broblasts have many similar characteristics as nerve cells, as both types of cells synthesize and secrete neurotransmitters and express receptors at their surface. The release of neurotransmitters can be induced by physical, chemical, or even emotional stimulus. Over 200 neurotransmitters have been identified, with over 25 being present in the skin.These skin neurotransmitters include neuropeptides and non-peptidic neurotransmitters. Neurocosmetic actives are topical ingredients that work on the cutaneous nervous system to restore the mediator-receptor balance in the skin. An effective neurocosmetic active ingredient can either modulate neurotransmitter effects, neurotransmitter skin synthesis, or a ffect the activity of neuropeptide receptors. Nerves endings have key functions and place in the skin. In the dermis they are continuously communicating with  broblasts and the aging of neurons may impact  broblasts and consequently skin aging. Neurocosmetic anti-aging strategies focus on the impact of neurons on skin homeostasis.

Liposomes / Micro-Incapsulated Hyaluronic Acid – Skin, being the human body’s largest organ, is the  first line of defense against the external environment. Active ingredients affect the skin through a multitude of mechanisms to either deliver or propagate the specific desired result. Extensive research has been conducted to determine how to deliver actives through the stratum corneum to varying depths of the skin. One conclusion of this research has shown the preferred mechanism for delivering active ingredients into the skin is by the way of liposome incorporation. Liposomes are microscopic spherical, self-enclosed capsules in which a phospholipid bilayer sequesters hydrophilic materials. The phospholipid bilayer orients based on the the polar head region assembling towards the aqueous phase, while the nonpolar tail orientates towards the inside of the sphere. This system allows for encapsulation of both lipophilic and hydrophilic components. The hydrophilic exterior of the bilayer protects the incorporated components from degradation while also enhancing the delivery of the actives into the skin. In addition, the vesicular structure liposomes exhibit mimic that of the skin’s own natural stratum corneum. This exible vesicular structure coupled with the amphiphilic nature of phospholipids creates a transdermal vehicle to deliver the encapsulated materials to the preferred destination. Liposomes were  first described by Dr. Alec D. Bangham in 1961 at Braham Institute in Cambridge. While testing the institute’s new electron microscope, negative stain added to dry phospholipids provided the  first real evidence that the cell membrane was a bilayer lipid structure. Liposomes were then designed as artificial cell models to study cell membranes and interactions. Since then, vast amounts of research have detailed liposome mechanisms in drug delivery, personal care, and even in food. Marketed as containing a Liposome Complex which claimed to effectively convey active ingredients into the skin within in microcapsules 300 times smaller than a normal cell was the consumer’s  first glimpse at liposomes in action. When non-encapsulated materials are placed on the skin, a range of factors determine the fate of the material. Stability, solubility, lipophilicity, and size are all obstacles the active must overcome the epidermal barrier. Liposomes, which resemble the basic structures of cellular membranes, create a more bene ficial interaction with skin cells.The structure and amphiphilic nature allows the liposomes to penetrate the epidermal barrier and travel deeper than free materials to deliver the anticipated results. A study was published in the DovePress on Clinical, Cosmetic, and Investigation Dermatology titled “Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders” analyzed liposomes and human skin penetration via Franz cells. Liposomes’ proven delivery system yields a multitude of benefits; enhancing the penetration of actives yielding increased efficacy, offering time release mechanisms, protecting and delivering otherwise unstable ingredients, and opening the door to the ability to target specifc cells. Liposomes can differ in size with a range in diameter between 150 – 3500nm, and they can be found in unilamellar and multilamellar forms. While multilamellar structures are great for specific tasks, they are not stable as raw materials or in formulations. Unilamellar vesicles are small, exceptionally stable molecules offering high stability for the incorporation into personal care products.

Actieves – Commonly used active ingredients in topical application products intended to delay visible signs of aging include Vitamins A, C and E, hyaluronic acid, alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), and beta hydroxy acids (BHAs). These actives have an abundance of data available demonstrating their benefits in cosmetics. Vitamin A is used in topical treatment to increase the rate of cell division and improve wrinkling, coarseness, hyper pigmentation and roughness associated with over exposure to the sun. Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant that can accelerate wound healing and play an integral role in elastin and collagen synthesis. Vitamin E is an antioxidant with signi cant moisturizing properties, anti-infiammatory effects and may provide protection from UV damage. AHAs and BHAs can cause increased skin thickness, improvement in skin elasticity and increased collagen content and glycosaminoglycans.

Retinol – Is a natural form of Vitamin A is a tried-and-true method for decreasing signs of aging. Till date, there are more than 700 published studies proving that Retinol reduces the appearance of wrinkles and boosts the thickness and elasticity of the skin. Dermatologists has researched retinol for years and have found ample evidence that shows retinol indeeds improves the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

Vitamin C –  Is another ingredient we used. It is known to play a role in collagen synthesis. In addition, when topically applied it helps mop up the free radicals that trigger wrinkling, sagging and other aging changes.

Vitamin E – Also called “the protector” is the other ingredient we used. A plethora of skincare studies has documented Vitamin E’s potent ability to neutralize skin damaging free radicals. In one such study, Vitamin E when used before UV exposure, skin appears less red, swollen and dry.

Collagen – For the purpose of moisturizing your skin, to keep it hydrated and supple. With these anti-aging ingredients, FRAME  is easily the most powerful and immediate face lift solution in the market today.

Glutathione – Is one of the best detoxifiers that I know. It is absolutely your best protection against the toxins that abound in food, air, and water, and it has remarkable anti-aging properties as well. Composed of three amino acids, glutathione is the single most powerful antioxidant that your body produces. It’s made in the liver, so if your liver isn’t functioning optimally, you are even more in need of supplementation. DNA protection; Immune support; Mitochondrial support (mitochondria are the portions of your cells that pump out energy, somitochrondial support both gives you more energy and boosts your metabolism to maintain a healthy weight); Reduction of inflammation; Protection against heart disease, cancer, neurological decline, dementia, and other chronic diseases. Glutathione is known as an anti-aging supplement, since low glutathione levels have been linked to every major aging process in the human body. After the age of 20, your natural production of glutathione slows down, dropping about 10 percent with every passing decade. By the time you reach age 60, you’re making only about half as much glutathione as you did in your teens, which contributes to flagging energy, lowered immunity, and many of the minor and major ailments that we frequently associate with aging. Taking glutathione supplements can turn this process around, keeping you vital and fit no matter how old you are. Foods that boost Glutathione are: Garlic; Onions; Asparagus; Avocado; Sprouts; Cabbage; Cauliflower; Kale; Parsley; Watercress; Cinnamon; Cardamom and Curcumin.

Magnesium – Is a mineral found in your blood, bones, tissues, and organs. It’s crucial for the optimal functioning of your heart, brain, and musculoskeletal, digestive, and circulatory systems, and it’s responsible for the correct metabolic function of more than 350 enzymes in your body. Magnesium helps regulate blood pressure, strengthens muscles and bones, and keeps the immune system strong. Magnesium is a powerful muscle relaxant which can ease constipation (as your intestinal walls relax) and lower blood pressure (as your arterial walls relax). The relaxation that magnesium engenders can also help you fall asleep more easily. And if you’re prone to muscle cramping, that’s often a sign that you’re short of magnesium—and it’s a problem that additional magnesium can remedy. Magnesium also helps your body detox. It helps clear both toxins and heavy metals. As with other key nutrients, it can be hard to get enough magnesium just from diet. Some studies estimate that up to 80 percent of us are deficient in magnesium. And the costs for shorting yourself on magnesium are high. In addition to taking a supplement, we advise you to load up on dietary sources of magnesium. You can focus on whole foods and green drinks—drinks made from leafy greens and spinach, both of which are rich in magnesium.

The foods that contain magnesium are: Wild-caught Pacific halibut; Leafy greens; Spinach; Black beans; Pumpkin seeds; Squash seeds; Green drinks

CoQ10 – This remarkable antioxidant is a powerful anti-aging supplement that will boost your energy, protect your heart, and support your cellular health. If you have any concerns about aging, fatigue, or heart disease, take CoQ10, especially if you are over 40. If you take statins, CoQ10 supplements are even more important, since statins can lower your CoQ10 levels by as much as 40 percent because they inhibit your body’s synthesis of it. This is not a “side effect” of statins but a direct inherent function of these drugs.The foods that contain CoQ10 are: Grass-fed red meat; Organ meats; Broccoli and Spinach.

Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA)- Is found in every cell of your body. It’s a potent, versatile antioxidant that fights inflammation, balances blood sugar, and protects your skin. Its effect is magnified by the way it boosts the effectiveness of other antioxidants in your body. ALA also promotes nerve health, helps remove heavy metals from the body, and purifies the liver. Although your body does produce ALA, it often doesn’t make as much as you need, so you have to look to outside sources—both through supplements and in your diet. Because insulin resistance and dysfunctional sugar metabolism is such a common underlying issue when we get old and fat, ALA is one of my go-to supplements for virtually all of my over-40 patients as well as an increasing number of younger ones. The foods that contain Alpha-Lipoic Acid are: Organ meats; Broccoli and Spinach.

Turmeric Extract – This delicious spice contains curcumin, an anti-inflammatory powerhouse that offers numerous health benefits. It takes about four to six weeks to start seeing results, but when you do, they are considerable. Because inflammation is such a common underlying mechanism for making us old and fat (Reduces pain; Decreases fatigue; Boosts mood; Sharpens mental focus; Improves cognition; Helps protect against cancer).